This interactive 3D model was developed for an e-learning module on dermatology. The e-learning module first explains the basic anatomy and physiology of the skin and then elaborates on a few common skin diseases, their pathology, signs and symptoms and treatment options. The model can be found on Sketchfab on the team's account. It is also embedded below.
Three layers of tissue make up the skin: Epidermis (the top layer), dermis (the middle layer) and the subcutis (the bottom or fatty layer)
Your epidermis is the top layer of the skin that you can see and touch. Keratin, a protein inside skin cells, makes up the skin cells and, along with other proteins, sticks together to form this layer. The epidermis acts as a protective barrier: It keeps bacteria and germs from entering your body and bloodstream and causing infections. It also protects against rain, sun and other elements.It also continually makes new skin cells. These new cells replace the approximately 40,000 old skin cells that your body sheds every day. On top of that, it protects your body: Langerhans cells in the epidermis are part of the body’s immune system. They help fight off germs and infections. The epidermis also provides your skin with color: it contains melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color.
The dermis makes up 90% of skin’s thickness. This middle layer of skin has collagen and elastin. Collagen is a protein that makes skin cells strong and resilient, while the protein elastin keeps skin flexible. It also helps stretched skin regain its shape. The roots of hair follicles attach to the dermis. Nerves in the dermis tell you when something is too hot to touch, itchy or super soft. Or painful. Oil glands in the dermis help keep the skin soft and smooth. Oil also prevents your skin from absorbing too much water when you swim or get caught in a rainstorm. Sweat glands in the dermis release sweat through skin pores. Sweat helps regulate your body temperature. Blood vessels in the dermis provide nutrients to the epidermis, keeping the skin layers healthy.
The bottom layer of skin, or subcutis, is the fatty layer. It cushions muscles and bones: Fat in the subcutis layer protects muscles and bones from injuries when you fall or are in an accident. The subcutis has connective tissue: This tissue connects layers of skin to muscles and bones. Nerves and blood vessels in the dermis (middle layer) get larger in the subcutis. These nerves and blood vessels branch out to connect the hypodermis to the rest of the body.
The subcutis also helps regulating body temperature: Fat in the hypodermis keeps you from getting too cold or hot.
Curious to see more?
Click on the images below to have a look at more interactive 3D models I worked on.